- the Royal Library of Ashurbanipal was the earliest recorded great library and served as an inspiration for the Library of Alexandria,
- the famous Royal Museum and Library of Alexandria held an estimated 400 to 500 thousand manuscripts,
- Library of Pergamum was home to 200,000 works and was the origin of parchment,
- Imperial Library of Constantinople held at least 120,000 works and was instrumental in the survival of ancient knowledge during the Middle Ages,
- the Abbasid House of Wisdom was the largest library since the Library of Alexandria and housed schools in all disciplines.